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Leave wildlife babies in the wild

It's as predictable as May flowers - from border to border, the Wildlife Baby Season has arrived in Iowa. From now until at least mid-June, DNR field offices across the state will be inundated with hundreds of phone calls and scores of deliveries regarding "orphaned wildlife."

Most calls begin with something like, "We were walking in the park when . . .," or "I looked out my window and saw. . ." In nearly every instance, the scenario ends with something [or several somethings] being rescued from their mother.

During a typical season, the species will range all the way from baby robins and squirrels to spindly-legged white-tailed fawns. At this time of the year it is not at all uncommon for staff to discover complete litters of baby raccoons, foxes, or even skunks have mysteriously appeared on their doorsteps.

Why this happens is no real mystery. From fuzzy yellow ducklings to tiny baby bunnies, nothing appears more cute and cuddly than a wildlife baby. But in reality, most of the wildlife reported to DNR field offices is not really orphaned at all. And while the people who attempt to "rescue" these babies have the best of intentions, they are in fact dooming the very creatures they intend to help.

The babies of most wildlife species leave their nests or dens well in advance of being able to care for themselves. Although broods or litters may become widely scattered during this fledgling period, they still remain under the direct care and feeding of their parents.

For many songbirds, the transition to independence comes quickly and may take as little as four or five days. For other species such as Canada geese, kestrels, or great horned owls, the young and parents may stay in contact for weeks -- even months.

At the beginning of the fledgling period, young birds appear clumsy, dull-witted, and vulnerable. The reason for this is because they really are clumsy, dull-witted, and vulnerable. But as the education process continues, the survivors smarten up fast, while slow learners quickly fade from the scene. Most birds have less than a 20 percent chance of surviving their first year. While this seems unfortunate or cruel, this is a normal occurrence in nature. In the real out-of-doors, it's just the way things are.

Most mammals employ a slightly different strategy when it comes to caring for their adolescents. Since most mammals are largely nocturnal, the mother usually finds a safe daytime hideout for her young while she sleeps or looks for food. Consequently, it is perfectly normal for the young to be alone or unattended during the daylight hours.

Nevertheless, whenever a newborn fawn or a nest full of baby cottontails or raccoons is discovered by a human, it quite often is assumed that the animals are orphaned. The youngster's fate is usually sealed when it is promptly "rescued from the wild."

Many wildlife babies die soon after capture from the stress of being handled, talked to, and placed into the unfamiliar surroundings of a slick sided cardboard box. Should the animal have the misfortune of surviving this trauma, they often succumb more slowly to starvation from improper nourishment, pneumonia, or other human caused sicknesses.

Whether they are adults or young, all species of wildlife have highly specific needs for survival. "Rescuing a baby from its mother" not only shows bad judgment, it also is illegal.

Observing wildlife in its natural habitat is always a unique privilege. Taking a good photo or two provides an even more lasting memory. But once you've done that, let well enough alone. Leave wildlife babies where they belong -- in the wild.

Iowans can do their part in helping Moncarch habitat grow

The recent news from the World Wildlife Fund and Mexico’s Comisión Nacional de Áreas Naturales Protegidas on monarch wintering numbers was an eye opener  – the butterflies covered an estimated seven acres of forest canopy in Mexico – less than half of last year’s population. Experts estimate a long-term average of 15 acres of occupied forest canopy is necessary to sustain the eastern North America monarch population.

Already well on their way back to the Upper Midwest, the orange and black icon will again call Iowa home in the next four to six weeks.

Iowa fills an important role for monarchs hosting generation after generation through the summer until Mother Nature signals it’s time to produce the Super Generation that will make the 3,000 mile journey back to Mexico for the winter.

Iowans can welcome the summertime residents back by including pollinator friendly plants as a part of their annual spring gardening and landscaping.

“This is an opportunity for people, individually, to help monarchs, and that can be as small as planting a flower pot on an apartment balcony or as large as new pollinator-focused prairie,” said Karen Kinkead, coordinator of the Iowa Department of Natural Resource’s Wildlife Diversity Program.

Kinkead recommended using local native seeds and plants that are better suited to Iowa’s growing season and likely more readily available from local greenhouses. “It also serves as a way to support local small businesses,” she said.

The current Iowa Monarch Conservation Strategy seeks to establish between 480,000 and 830,000 acres of monarch habitat by 2038, through voluntary, statewide conservation efforts based on the best available science.

“When we have perfect weather conditions, we can produce enough monarchs, but weather can also work against monarch production and survival and to compensate for that requires more production areas,” Kinkead said. “We saw good egg production and adult numbers last year, but that didn’t overcome bad weather between here and Mexico. We need great egg production.”

Monarchs use different plants during different stages of its lifecycle and Kinkead suggests that a mixture of milkweed and native wildflowers be part of every planting, if possible. Reccomendations for creating a habitat for monarchs and other pollinators include choosing native plants, including milkweed and other species of wildflower, being patient and to avoid using chemicals on the lot.

Considerations for creating a small patch of monarch habitat

The first thing to decide is whether you prefer something formal or you’re okay with a little mess. This will drive the plants and design of the garden. In many urban and suburban areas there may be rules or ordinances governing what plants are allowed or how tall and messy plantings can be, so be sure to check into this first if you want something a little more natural.

If you do want a natural look you can opt for either seed or prairie plant plugs. Plugs have the advantage of maturing faster but are more expensive. If you wish for a more formal garden look, there are plenty of prairie plants that are shorter in stature and do not aggressively spread. For example, butterfly weed, whorled milkweed and swamp (red) milkweed are all native species that will not overwhelm your garden like common milkweed would. The best time to plant plugs is in the spring after the last frost.

An example species list for a native plant home garden that is great for monarchs and pollinators is listed at the end of this document.

Whether you go for plugs or seed, it is best to start with bare ground just like any flower bed. Adding a little compost wouldn’t hurt but it’s not necessary and other kinds of amendments shouldn’t be needed – most prairie plants are used to making the most of poorer soil.

To keep the garden looking nice, you will need to weed, particularly in the first two years to give the native plants a chance to grow. Being familiar with what the plants look like as seedlings can be helpful for this. If you want to keep a more natural garden from looking too wild, you can add a nice border of rocks that can double as monarch sunning spots, or keep a mowed border around it.

There are really no broad-scale cost-share programs in Iowa to help private landowners putting in a smaller sized area of habitat. It would be worthwhile to do some research on local programs that may provide funding or plants for area homeowners and it’s always good to keep a look out for monarch events in your town as milkweed is often freely available.

Considerations for creating a patch larger than one acre

Plots that are one acre or greater, the best and most economical way to go for a natural looking prairie is through a seed mix, rather than planting plugs. Iowa State University has developed an ideal recommended Monarch seed mix for Iowa which is a good place to start.

The best time to plant prairie seed is late October or November before the ground freezes and just before or after a light snow, but planting anytime during this period is fine. You want to plant the seed on bare ground so if you are replacing turf it’s best to kill this with chemical or by some other means. Prairie seed does best if drilled in and there are special drills (Truax Native Seed Drills is a popular brand) which you may be able to rent or it might be worth hiring a contractor to do your planting. The Tallgrass Prairie Center at the University of Northern Iowa may be useful in finding a contractor.

Maintenance in the first few years will be important to give the prairie plants the best chance to thrive. The area should be mowed 2-3 times during the growing season for the first two years. After this, prescribed burning or mowing every 3-5 years will keep the plants healthy and thriving and preserve the diversity of the seeding hut decreasing the amount of tree and shrub growth. Best times for mowing and burning for monarchs will be between October and the first of May. If you have concerns about the resident pollinators (which may spend winters on the property), on which burning and mowing can be hard, you may consider splitting the area and just doing a third of the field every three years.

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